Classical French Cutting Styles
1Jullienne 5-7cm x W 0.1mm x H 0.1mm
2 Vinchy 2 mm thick slices
3 Paysanne 1cm x W 1cm x H 0.2mm
4 rough julienne 5-7cm x W 0.2mm x H 0.2mm
5 baton 5cm x W 0.5mm x H 0.5mm
6 bouqet garni between brunoise – jardinaire ( no need to be specific )
7 Brunoise 5mm x W 5mm x H 5mm
8 Jardinaire 0.5mm x W 0.5mm x H 0.2mm
9 Macedoine 1Cm x W 1Cm x H 1Cm
10 Ciffonade sliced 0.1-0.2 mm thick
11 Printaniere shape
12 Demidoff 0.2 cm thick
13 Mirepoix 2mm x W 2mm x H 2mm
14 Bouqet matignon
Watch the following 40 very short videos on Knife skills
This is very thinly sliced into a circular, shapes which a special mandolin or a knife, this works well for sweet potato, squash and beetroot. The cuts should be uniform in size and thickness and then marinated to inject flavor and to break down cell wall to allow for easy digestion and flavors released.
This is traditional done with a grater but can also be done in a food processor with the grating blade. This method is used to make coleslaw and vegetables that work really well are beetroot, carrot and cabbage (both red and green). This method is also used in fermenting vegetables such as Kimchi and sauerkraut, by preparing the vegetables like this you increase the surface area of the vegetable and so the cell wall is easily broken and they are much more readily to absorb flavors and sauces such as adding a mayonnaise to make coleslaw. This is a fantastic way to make a vegetable very quickly easy to digest, very tasty with a soft texture, unlike the Carpaccio, which needs to be marinated for a number of hours in room temperature.
Slicing can be done with a vegetable peeler or a knife, in this context I am referring to thinly slicing vegetables such as cucumbers and Zucchini in order to make ‘ravioli style pasta”. This works great with high water content vegetables such as the cucumber or Zucchini and does not need to be marinated but just seasoned or mixed with a sauce and served straight away, the cell walls of these vegetables is not hard and these are very easy to digest and this is a great make to make a very clean fresh tasting raw pasta. Carrots can also be used in the same way but generally needs to be marinated die to a much harder cell wall.
Brunoise (Fine Dice)
Brunoise is a cutting technique in which a fruit or vegetable is cut into a fine dice. The food item is usually first julienned, then sliced across the ‘sticks’ to produce small cubes no bigger 3mm (1/8 inch) on each side. Common items to be brunoised are carrots, onions and turnips. This technique is often used to finely dice vegetables for sauteeing or as a garnish in some dishes. When used as a garnish, the cut should be consistent in size and shape, to ultimately help create a visual effect.
Chiffonade cutting technique is used on herbs or leafy vegetables. Examples for vegetables you can chiffonade are lettuce, spinach or cabbage and for herbs basil, mint or kaffir lime. They are cut into long, thin strips and can be vary in thickness from 1mm up to 1 inch. This is generally done by stacking the leaves on top of each other, rolling them tightly to form a tube, and then cutting across the rolled leaves with a sharp knife to produce fine ribbons.
Julienne (Match Sticks)
Julienne is a cutting technique where food is cut into long thin ‘matchstick’ like strips. This style of cut is commonly used as a garnish or on vegetables for stir fries. The more common vegetables seen julienned are carrots, zuchinni (zucchini), capsicum and celery but this cutting technique can be used on any firm vegetable or fruit. Hollow vegetables, like capsicum, have the ends chopped off and are then opened flat for slicing into julienne sticks. Whereas solid and/or round vegetables like carrots are cut with a charp (chirp) knife, on four sides to create a thick rectangular block. They are then sliced lengthwise, approximately 3mm (1/8 inch) thick. The slices are then stacked on top of each other, and are cut lengthwise to form thin uniform square sticks.
Macedoine (Large Dice)
Macedoine is a cutting technique in which a fruit or vegetable is cut into cubes. Typically this cut would be used for vegetables that are used in soup or a stock base. Melons and other large fruits are also cut into macedoine cubes for fruit salad. An important rule when using this cut is to have a steady flat surface to cut on. If the food you’re cutting is round, cut one side to make it steady on the chopping board. This will make it easier to maintain control whilst cutting the fruit or vegetable.
Start by cutting the ingredient into thin strips, and then dice the strips. Hold the knife handle in one hand and, with the other, hold down the tip of the blunt edge of the blade. Using the tip as a pivot, raise and lower the blade in a chopping motion, moving it from side to side to mince everything evenly. Scoop up minced ingredients occasionally, flip them over, and keep chopping to ensure even mincing.
This technique is used for long vegetables, like carrots or zucchini. It makes attractive chunks and exposes more of the surface area of the vegetable. Hold the blade perpendicular to the board and cut straight down on the diagonal. Then roll the vegetable a quarter-turn, and cut straight down again at the same diagonal angle. Continue rolling and cutting in this way all along the length of the vegetable.
Used to cut broad, thin slices of meat or vegetables. Lay the food close to the edge of the board with the fingers of your free hand flat on top of it. Angle the Chinese chef’s knife so that it’s almost parallel to the board, slanting slightly downward. Move it slowly and carefully back and forth to slice the food, paying close attention to avoid cutting your fingers.
To crush ginger or garlic, place it near the edge of the cutting board, lay the knife blade flat over it with the blade facing away from you, and with the heel of your free hand, give the side of the blade a good whack, being careful to avoid the edge of the blade.
This is a method developed by using a Spiralizer which cuts around the core of the vegetable and produces noodle like vegetables. The Spiralizer is a fantastic machine to have a raw food chef particularly for making raw noodles from vegetables such as beetroots, Zucchini and carrots. The best way to prepare pasta and noodles from the Spiralizer is to just season with salt, pepper and oil and eat straight away.